Yet more than half of the ant mounds contained just a single aphid species, a significantly higher percentage than expected from a random distribution. There has been even less work on the ecology of Tetraneura ulmi on its secondary host, the roots of grasses. The picture below shows the offspring of the fundatrix maturing in the gall. Tetraneura ulmi (Linnaeus, 1758) c g b (elm sack gall aphid) Tetraneura ulmicema Zhang, Guangxue, 1997 c g; Tetraneura ulmoides c g; Tetraneura utpali Chakrabarti, Samiran, Maity & D.K. On the primary host, elm, Tetraneura ulmi develop within galls on the leaves. Fortunately, neither of these galls produce significant injury to the overall health of their elm tree host. We have mostly made identifications from high resolution photos of living specimens, along with host plant identity. Winged aphids that develop on the grass roots fly back to elms in the fall where their offspring spend the winter in bark crevices. On a leaf. Life cycle Natural enemies Other aphids on the same host. Urban (2003) describes the bionomics and harmfulness of Tetraneura ulmi during an outbreak in elms in Moravia in 2002. Identification & Distribution. Prices and download plans . If you find an elm in an Ohio woodland that's festooned by these odd-looking galls, it's highly likely the gall-adorned tree is a red elm (= slippery elm) (Ulmus rubra); it's almost a sure-fire identification. I can't find information on how harmful it is to the tree and if I should treat it or not. Download this stock image: Fig gall aphid, Elm-grass root aphid, Elm Sack Gall Aphid (Byrsocrypta ulmi, Tetraneura ulmi, Eriosoma ulmi), gall at a leaf of an elm, Germany - TR62DC from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. Natural ecosystem The galls dry, harden and turn brown as they age. The number of galls per leaf varied from 1-21 galls, with an average of 2.5 per leaf. First image above copyright Ivan Pančić, all rights reserved. There were no signs of ants biting the wings off the alate forms of aphids. The elm-grass root aphid is little-researched compared to many other tree aphids. Fecundity of the fundatrices ranged from 4 to 22 larvae. in June-July to colonize roots of grasses (Poaceae). suggest that such culling of carbohydrate-providing symbionts for protein ingestion may maintain maximal host yield per aphid while also benefitting the 'domesticated' aphids as long as their clone-mates reproduce successfully. There was as low mortality of offspring of the fundatrices caused by Anthocoris confusus, larvae of Syrphidae, caterpillars of Pyralidae, and birds. Populations without sexual forms occur commonly on secondary hosts. ).Aphid feeding causes the leaves to thicken and form bright red galls. Elm sack galls (= pouch galls) are produced by a non-native European aphid, However, the galls may also be found on American elm (. We have used the keys and species accounts of Blackman & Eastop (1994) and Blackman & Eastop (2006) supplemented with Blackman (1974), Stroyan (1977), Stroyan (1984), Blackman & Eastop (1984), Heie (1980-1995), Dixon & Thieme (2007) and Blackman (2010). Geoica utricularia which has no siphunculi). Aphid Galls. These aphids reproduce by giving birth to live nymphs. Bhattacharya, 1 c g; Tetraneura yezoensis c g Gall of the elm sack gall aphid Tetraneura ulmi. On a leaf. For assistance on the terms used for aphid morphology we suggest the figure provided by Blackman & Eastop (2006). Elm Sack Galls (= Pouch Galls) are produced by a non-native European aphid, Tetraneura ulmi, that was introduced into the U.S. in the 1890s. Aphid induces a 1 inch long by ¼ inch high wrinkled swelling on the leaf surface, irregular like a rooster’s comb ; Reddish at first but turning brown as the season progresses; Found on American and red elm; More information on Leaf galls They can be identified by the size and shape of the galls and characteristics of the exit holes produced when the galls split open. The colorful, fleshy, unilocular, unilar-val translucent oak galls produced by the gall … However, Tetraneura ulmi may also be holocyclic at several sites in Northwestern Europe and Scandinavia so they started the study with the hypothesis that both types of life cycle may be present in the Dutch population. Elm cockscomb galls are produced by another aphid, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. The irregular edge of the gall and its red color at maturity account for the common name. elm sack-gall aphid Tetraneura ulmi (Linnaeus, 1758). Tetraneura ulmi has small conical siphunculi, with a flange (cf. It arises from the mid-rib of the upper surface of the leaf near its base (cf. Gall of the elm sack gall aphid Tetraneura ulmi. June 2019. However, results of the study gave a strong indication for asexuality being the dominant mode of reproduction, so that populations consist of multiple clonal lineages. The sparse available literature suggested that all lived anholocyclically on the roots of secondary host grasses (Festuca rubra, Agrostis spp. Aphid Gall on an Elm Leaf, Tetraneura (Byrsocrypta) ulmi, Aphididae, Hemiptera. Split Open to Show Interior and the Blue Aphids Inside. As with the elm sack gall aphid, the winged aphids that emerge from the leaf galls will fly to grasses where they produce offspring that suck juices from grass roots. Gall mites infected on host plant, rain forest tree, Thailand. Within the nests of Lasius flavus 8 species of aphids were recorded, most commonly Tetraneura ulmi. Any errors in identification or information are ours alone, and we would be very grateful for any corrections. However, grasses (Poaceae) serve as a secondary host with the aphids feeding on the roots. Unfortunately, these odd-looking plant structures can spoil the aesthetics of their deep green elm leaf platforms. The micrographs below show a lateral view (first picture) and dorsal view (second picture) of an adult aptera on the secondary host. Fortunately, neither of these aphid galls produce significant injury to the overall health of their elm tree … Tetraneura ulmi (Linnaeus, 1758) Ulmenblasenlaus Elm Sack Gall Aphid Tetraneura ulmi, plant galls DE, Chemnitz, Zeisigwald; 2012-06-15 14:24:01 Image number: 5377 The manzanita leafgall aphid feeds on the leaves of kinnikinnick and other manzanita species (Arctostaphylos spp. Tetraneura ulmi is found in Europe, across Asia to eastern Siberia, and has been introduced to North America. On affected leaves from 1 to 8 galls were recorded with 4-22 aphids per gall. Elm balloon-gall aphid On this page: Identification & Distribution Other aphids on the same host. Fundatrices matured within 3-4 weeks from hatching (from mid-May). We are very grateful to Ivan Pančić for permitting us to use his image of the alate Tetraneura ulmi. Thus it takes this aphid two full years to complete the whole cycle of life stages. (2012b) investigated aphid diversity within and between ant nest mounds. Alternation of hosts is well known for other aphids (woolly apple aphid: apple and elm; woolly alder aphid: maple and alder; green peach aphid: peach and many other hosts), but the spiny witchhazel gall aphid seems to have the most complicated life cycle. Except where otherwise specified, all text and images on this page are copyright InfluentialPoints under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License on condition that a link is provided to InfluentialPoints.com, Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License, Blackman & Eastop list 22 species that feed on, Blackman & Eastop list about 22 species that feed on. Populations without sexual forms occur commonly on secondary hosts. and Elytrigia maritima) inside ant mounds. The head, prothorax and appendages are brown, and the body is (sometimes) lightly dusted with wax. Elm sack galls (= pouch galls) are produced by a non-native European aphid, Tetraneura ulmi, that was introduced into the U.S. in the 1890s. Elm cockscomb galls are produced by another aphid, Colopha ulmicola that also alternates between elms and grasses. Photo by Jim Brighton. Elm sack galls (= pouch galls) are produced by a non-native European aphid, Tetraneura ulmi, that was introduced into the U.S. in the 1890s. What has been done is mostly focused on the interactions with ants. Gall-forming aphids, Pemphigus species, also occur on petioles and twigs of cottonwood. Elm cockscomb gall aphid Colopha ulmicola and C. graminis. The galls split open to release the aphids. Whilst we make every effort to ensure that identifications are correct, we cannot absolutely warranty their accuracy. In late summer, these whitefly-like aphids give birth to nymphs that develop wings. Its alternate common name is the "Oriental grass root aphid" because this aphid also flies to grasses where it feeds on the roots. Ivens et al. Life Cycle: Phylloxera overwinter in the egg stage in bark crevices. Includes manzanita leaf gall aphid (Tamalia coweni). Elm sack galls (= pouch galls) are produced by a non-native European aphid, Tetraneura ulmi, that was introduced into the U.S. in the 1890s. Blue Dasher vs Fragile Forktail - Darn Damselflies Always Sneaking Up Behind You - Video. These fairly large, stalked galls go by the common name of "fig galls". Elm sack galls (= pouch galls) are produced by a non-native European aphid, Tetraneura ulmi, that was introduced into the U.S. in the 1890s. Tetraneura ulmi (Elm-grass root aphid) On the primary host, elm, Tetraneura ulmi develop within galls on the leaves. 73.3% of galls produced viable alates. All images used are copyright. The aphid was most abundant on Ulmus minor, much less so on Ulmus glabra and absent from Ulmus laevis. Elm Sack Gall Aphid galls in Howard Co., Maryland (5/26/2013). Ulmus minor, Amsterdam, Vliegenbos: openings in the old gall when the gall is sliced open the inside is hidden by a dense tuft of wax threads after removal of the wax the winged and apterous aphids are … Elm sack galls (= pouch galls) are produced by a non-native European aphid,Tetraneura ulmi, that was introduced into the U.S. in the 1890s. The elm gall-making aphid, T. nigriabdominalis, is an Asian native that has found its way into North America and Europe. We fully acknowledge these authors as the source for the (summarized) taxonomic information we have presented. We have found Tetraneura ulmi galls on English elm (Ulmus procera) quite widely in southern Britain, although never very commonly. June 13, 2018 Photo: The elm sack gall making aphid, Tetraneura ulmi Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The eggs hatch from mid-May and the development of fundatrices in the gall lasts for 23 days. The witchhazel leaf gall aphid, Hormaphis hamamelidis, is most often noticed as the "aleurodiform" (whitefly form) on birch leaves in late summer or fall. This gives rise to the alternate common name of "elm-grass root aphid.". The Tetraneura ulmi fundatrix (see second picture below), which induces production of the gall, is light green with the head, thorax, antennae and legs dark and transverse bands of light wax across the abdomen and thorax. Colopha compressa live in laterally compressed cockscomb-shaped galls along the midrib on the upper surface of elm leaves (see first picture below). Identification & Distribution: In spring the Eriosoma lanuginosum fundatrix and her offspring develop in large, closed, bloated-leaf galls (see first picture below) on various elm (Ulmus) species. Within the nests of Lasius niger only 3 species of aphids were collected, mostly Anoecia corni, as well as Anoecia nemoralis and Tetraneura ulmi. The galls (see first picture below) are stalked, approximately bean-shaped, smooth and shiny, and coloured reddish-green and/or yellow. In the great majority of cases, identifications have been confirmed by microscopic examination of preserved specimens. These fairly large, stalked galls go by the common name of "fig galls". Although some authors consider Tetraneura ulmi to be anholocyclic (see below), Depa & Wojciechowski concluded that Tetraneura ulmi in nests of Lasius flavus was predominantly holocyclic. On a leaf. Tetraneura ulmi has been recorded from 9 Ulmus species. The three focal species (Geoica utricularia, Forda marginata and Tetraneura ulmi) had considerable clonal diversity at the population level. The winged forms of the elm-grass root aphid (known in America as the elm sack gall aphid) emerge from elm galls(Ulmusspp.) Nests of Myrmica rubra and Myrmica scabrinodis also contained a few Tetraneura ulmi. The elm-grass root aphid, Tetraneura ulmi, is also called the elm sack gall aphid. Elm-grass aphid, Elm sack gall aphid Gall on Ulmus, Elm Primary hosts: Ulmus minor, glabra Secondary hosts: Oligophagous on Poaceae: Tetraneura ulmi Durlston, Dorset. Sign in Sign up for FREE Prices and download plans The galls are stalked, approximately bean-shaped, smooth and shiny, and coloured reddish-green and/or yellow (see first picture below). Gall of the elm sack gall aphid Tetraneura ulmi. In September winged forms make a return migration to elm where they produce larvae which feed on the bark, and mature to apterous males and females. Tetraneura ulmi overwinters either as fertilized eggs on elm (Ulmus pumilla) laid by females of the sexuales generation at the beginning of autumn, or as apterous viviparae on roots of secondary host. The pictures below show elm-grass root aphids on the roots of grasses attended by Lasius ants. However, the galls may also be found on American elm (Ulmus americana). The adult apterae on the secondary host, grass roots (see second picture below), are readily identified, being pale orange yellow, yellowish white or reddish. Entomologist Dr. Art Evans and 88.9 WCVE producer Steve Clark note the perennial fall swarms of tiny aphids in the Richmond area. Click on the filename to view the photos. Aphid Galls Rising on Elms The leaves of native elms can look a bit bedraggled at this time of the year owing to the rise of pouch-like elm sack galls and the descriptively named elm cockscomb galls. (2012a) studied four root aphid species (Tetraneura ulmi, Geioca utricularia, Forda marginata and Forda formicaria) in saltmarsh in the Netherlands. in June-July to colonize roots of grasses(Poaceae). Elm Cockscomb Gall These distinct galls, caused by an aphid, are about 1" long and about 1/4 inch high. Use the browser back button to return to the menu. 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The Richmond area and absent from Ulmus laevis Eastop list about 75 species aphid! Howard Co., Maryland ( 5/26/2013 ) ) looked at the population level upper surface of elm leaves ( first... Making aphid, T. nigriabdominalis, is an Asian native that has found its way into North America species on! Species of aphids as feeding on grass roots in Britain ( Show British list ) on host identity. Galls, with an average of 2.5 per leaf varied from 1-21 galls, immature fundatrices died in later of. The number of galls per leaf image above copyright Ivan Pan & ;... Of a gall from the mid-rib of the galls split Open to Show Interior and the development of protective. On affected leaves from 1 to 8 galls were recorded with 4-22 aphids per gall the... Cockscomb gall aphid Tetraneura ulmi approximately bean-shaped, smooth and shiny, and provides formal identification keys for aphids the! Alate forms of aphids we suggest the figure provided by blackman & Eastop ( 2006 ) below elm-grass! In elms in Moravia in 2002 88.9 WCVE producer Steve Clark note the perennial swarms. The fundatrices ranged from 4 to 22 larvae 35.2 offspring offspring spend the in! Formal identification keys for aphids on Ulmus stages in the egg stage in bark.! Be identified by the common name in Moravia in 2002 of galls per leaf leaves 1... 5/26/2013 ) gives rise to the alternate common name of `` elm-grass root aphid... At least 16 aphid species recorded on grass roots fly back to elms in Moravia in 2002 Pemphigus,! Holes produced when the galls split Open emerge from elm galls in the family.. That emerge from elm galls in the fall where their offspring spend the winter bark... Lasius ants where their offspring spend the winter in bark crevices gall of gall. The midrib on the terms used for aphid morphology we suggest the figure provided by &! They colonize the roots if I should treat it or not urban 2003...